Saturday, April 23, 2016
Thursday, January 28, 2016
There is also the matter of YouTube’s Content ID System - a digital audio fingerprinting system that is a necessary tool for copyright owners to police UGC, but a system that YouTube selectively allows access to (access which I was denied for reasons unknown), thus creating the ability of those with access to fraudulently utilize Content ID to illegally claim and monetize the content of those without access (with no mechanism in place for the rightful copyright owner to notify YouTube of the fraudulence in question or properly dispute it).
1 "YouTube to Tv Networks: No More 'Sweetheart' Ad Deals for You!" Ad Age. October 31, 2013. ↩
2 "YouTube Standardizes Ad-Revenue Split for All Partners, But Offers Upside". Variety. November 1, 2013. ↩
3 "YouTube still doesn't make Google any money". Business Insider. February 25, 2015. ↩
4 "YouTube Revenue Explainer". Music Tech Solutions. March 10, 2016. ↩
5 "How YouTube Pays Artists by East Bay Ray". Janky Smooth. December 3, 2015. ↩
6 "The Dark Side Of YouTube". Zack Hemsey Official Blog. January 28, 2015. ↩
7 "What should I do about YouTube?" Official Zoe Keating Blog. January 22, 2015. ↩
8 "Forget CDS. Teens Are Tuning Into YouTube". The Wall Street Journal. August 14, 2012. ↩
9 "YouTube as you know it is about to change dramatically". The Verge. August 28, 2015. ↩
10 "YouTube boosted by music videos to pull behind Facebook". BBC. October 26, 2011. ↩
11 "YOUTUBE IS THE NO.1 MUSIC STREAMING PLATFORM - AND GETTING BIGGER". Music Business Worldwide. July 6, 2015. ↩
12 "YouTube Music Is Growing 60% Faster Than All Other Streaming Music Services Combined". Digital Music News. September 14, 2015. ↩
Tuesday, October 20, 2015
Let’s begin by examining the often-cited motivation for releasing singles - generating a “buzz” - that electric gossip over something so cool and interesting that no one can stop talking about it. Without a buzz, your album will be released into anonymous oblivion amidst the endless sea of content that humanity swims in; the world won’t stop to take notice of your contribution, and no one will realize you even exist. But fear not, for the single has the potential to avert this creative and existential disaster. This is that one song that will change everything. A song so special, it makes you believe in magic. Yes, the single holds the power to generate that coveted buzz, but…and this is the important part…it must be released in advance of the album to which it belongs! Failure to abide by this tenant will render the single powerless; for reasons unknown, people simply will not feel the same way about the song otherwise.
In light of the above, I have been and will continue to be a conscientious objector to this indefensible pastime. The only singles you will find from me are self-contained songs that do not belong to a larger body of work. After all, that’s what a single should be…one single fucking song!!!!
Friday, September 11, 2015
On first glance, it may look like my daughter is being suffocated, or attacked by a face sucker out of the Alien franchise, but rest assured she is alive and well (and not carrying an alien pod inside her…as far as we know). The baby is sucking on my wife’s pinky finger, with the remaining fingers covering her eyes and face, while all of the weight is distributed across two hands, two boobs, and one forearm, working in concert to form the perfect baby cocoon. This was typically accompanied by a soft rocking up and down, while walking about.
Wednesday, August 12, 2015
Although the computer screen was positioned far enough back to avoid blocking the direct sound path from the speakers, it still hovered over the apex of the desk, so if you leaned too far forward it caused a “window” type of effect on the frequency spectrum, making it sound goofy. And I wondered if a 30” surface hovering in mid air might be creating some unwanted acoustic reflections.
So earlier this year I put my plan into action, and the result speaks for itself:
Thursday, April 23, 2015
Of course, men (and some women) enjoy any excuse to fix their eyes upon the female anatomy. But I’m not convinced that’s all there is to the story. After all, there are other sports (even male-dominated ones) which lack any equivalent. Sure, there are some similarities between ring card girls and the cheerleaders that perform at football and basketball games, but these are distinctly different phenomena. And ask yourself, why don’t we have ring card girls at the DMV? Or at the grocery store? Or at funerals? Why aren’t they holding up signs listing the current wait time, or a ticket #, or the parting words of the deceased? If it were truly as simple as “it’s fun to look at hot chicks”, wouldn’t we have found a way to expand their contributions to society? Indeed, the exclusivity among combat sports is intriguing.
If we come together, we can turn this dream into a reality. The world, and MMA, can be better. We just have to choose to make it better. Write to your representatives. Write to your favorite fighters. Write to the UFC. And proudly spread the message that everyone should have the right to become a ring card girl, even if they have testicles.
Thursday, March 5, 2015
2. GBS in the United States ↩
3. GBS and IAP Studies ↩
4. The Source of GBS Rates ↩
5. Examining the GBS Narrative ↩
6. Fluctuating Variables ↩
7. GBS Hospital Surveys ↩
8. GBS by Gestation ↩
9. GBS by Race ↩
10. Late-Onset GBS ↩
11. GBS and the Cesarean Complication ↩
12. GBS False Negatives / Positives ↩
13. GBS and Mortality ↩
14. GBS at the State Level ↩
15. GBS Around the World ↩
16. Risks of IAP ↩
17. Alternatives to IAP ↩
18. GBS Conclusions ↩
While there have also been significant increases in the rates among black and white preterm infants at various points, as mentioned in the previous section, there are too many variables involved with preterm incidence to draw reliable conclusions.
1 Blaser, M. (2014). Missing Microbes. New York: Holt, Henry & Company.
2 Neu J, Rushing J. Cesarean versus vaginal delivery: long-term infant outcomes and the hygiene hypothesis. Clin Perinatol. 2011 Jun; 38(2): 321-331.
3 CDC. Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: Revised Guidelines from CDC, 2010. MMWR Recommendations and Reports: 2010; 59 (RR-10) (November): 1–32.
4 Remington JS, Klein JO, Wilson CB, Baker CJ. Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant (Sixth Edition). Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007 Mar; 92(2): F156.
5 CDC. Group B Strep Infection in Adults. http://www.cdc.gov/groupbstrep/about/adults.html
6 CDC. Group B Strep Infection in Newborns. http://www.cdc.gov/groupbstrep/about/newborns-pregnant.html
7 Pinner RW, Rebmann CA, Schuchat A, Hughes JM. Disease Surveillance and the Academic, Clinical, and Public Health Communities. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 Jul; 9(7): 781–787.
8 CDC. Group B Strep - Fast Facts. http://www.cdc.gov/groupbstrep/about/fast-facts.html
9 Schrag SJ, Verani JR. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease: experience in the United States and implications for a potential group B streptococcal vaccine. Vaccine. 2013 Aug 28;31 Suppl 4:D20-6. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.11.056. Epub 2012 Dec 3.
10 Hager WD, Schuchat A, Gibbs R, Sweet R, Mead P, Larsen JW. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal infection: current controversies. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Jul; 96(1): 141-5.
11 Schrag SJ, Zell ER, Lynfield R, Roome A, Arnold KE, Craig AS, et al. A population-based comparison of strategies to prevent early-onset group B streptococcal disease in neonates. N Engl J Med 2002;347(July (4)):233–9.
12 Johri AK, Paoletti LC, Rappuoli R. Group B Streptococcus: global incidence and vaccine development. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006 Dec; 4(12): 932–942.
13 Yancey MK, Schuchat A, Brown LK, Ventura VL, Parkinson GR. The accuracy of late antenatal screening cultures in predicting genital group B streptococcal colonization at delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Nov; 88(5): 811-5.
14 Schuchat A. Group B Streptococcal Disease: From Trials and Tribulations to Triumph and Trepidation. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Sep 15;33(6):751-6. Epub 2001 Aug 10.
15 Boyer KM, Gotoff SP. Prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease with selective intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. N Engl J Med. 986 Jun 26;314(26):1665-9.
16 Tuppurainen N, Hallman M. Prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal disease: intrapartum detection and chemoprophylaxis of heavily colonized parturients. Obstet Gynecol. 1989 Apr;73(4):583-7.
17 Matorras R, Garcia-Perea A, Omeñaca F, Diez-Enciso M, Madero R, Usandizaga JA. Intrapartum chemoprophylaxis of early-onset group B streptococcal disease. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1991 Jun 5;40(1):57-62.
18 Benitz WE, Gould JB, Druzin ML. Antimicrobial Prevention of Early-onset Group B Streptococcal Sepsis: Estimates of Risk Reduction Based on a Critical Literature Review. Pediatrics. 1999 Jun;103(6):e78.
19 Ohlsson A, Shah VS. Intrapartum antibiotics for known maternal Group B streptococcal colonization. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jun 10;6:CD007467. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007467.pub4.
20 Lim DV, Morales WJ, Walsh AF, Kazanis D. Reduction of morbidity and mortality rates for neonatal group B streptococcal disease through early diagnosis and chemoprophylaxis. J Clin Microbial. 1986 Mar;23(3):489-92.
21 Garland SM, Fliegner JR. Group B streptococcus (GBS) and neonatal infections: the case for intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. Just N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1991 May;31(2):119-22.
22 Pylipow M, Gaddis M, Kinney JS. Selective intrapartum prophylaxis for group B streptococcus colonization: management and outcome of newborns. Pediatrics. 1994 Apr;93(4):631-5.
23 Allardice JG, Baskett TF, Seshia MM, Bowman N, Malazdrewicz R. Perinatal group B streptococcal colonization and infection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982 Mar 15;142(6 Pt 1):617-20.
24 Lin FY, Brenner RA, Johnson YR, et al. The effectiveness of risk-based intrapartum chemoprophylaxis for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001 May;184(6):1204-10.
25 Katz PF, Hibbard JU, Ranganathan D, Meadows W, Ismail M. Group B streptococcus: to culture or not to culture? J Perinatol. 1999 Jul-Aug;19(5):337-42.
26 Chan GJ, Stuart EA, Black RE. The effect of intrapartum antibiotics on early-onset neonatal sepsis in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a propensity score matched analysis. BMC Pediatr. 2014; 14: 104.
27 Pyati SP, Pildes RS, Jacobs NM, Ramamurthy RS, Yeh TF, Raval DS, Lilien LD, Amma P, Metzler WI. Penicillin in infants weighing two kilograms or less with early-onset Group B streptococcal disease. N Engl J Med. 1983 Jun 9;308(23):1383-9.
28 Fishcer G, Horton RE, Edelman R. From the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Summary of the National Institutes of Health workshop on group B streptococcal infection. J Infect Dis. 1983 Jul;148(1):163-6.
29 Allen UD, Navas L, King SM. Effectiveness of intrapartum penicillin prophylaxis in preventing early-onset group B streptococcal infection: results of a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 1993 Dec 1;149(11):1659-65.
30 Ohlsson A, Myhr TL. Intrapartum chemoprophylaxis of perinatal group B streptococcal infections: a critical review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Mar;170(3):910-7.
31 CDC. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance - Background. http://www.cdc.gov/abcs/overview/background.html
32 CDC. Early-Onset and Late-Onset Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease - United States, 1996-2004. MMWR Wkly Rep 2005, 54(47); 1205-1208.
33 Schuchat A, Hilger T, Zell E, et al. Active bacterial core surveillance of the emerging infections program network. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1):92-99.
34 Stephanie Schrag (CDC), personal communication, December 3, 2014.
35 CDC. Decreasing Incidence of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease -- United States, 1993-1995. MMWR Wkly Rep 1997, 46(21); 473-477.
36 Jordan HT, Farley MM, Craig A, et al. Revisiting the need for vaccine prevention of late-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease: a multistate, population-based analysis. Pediat Infect Dis J 2008;27:1057--64.
37 Schrag SJ, Zywicki S, Farley MM, Reingold AL, Harrison LH, Lefkowitz LB, et al. Group B streptococcal disease in the era of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jan 6;342(1):15-20.
38 CDC. Comparison of Meningococcal Disease Surveillance Systems - United States, 2005-2008. MMWR Wkly Rep 2012, 61(17); 306-308.
39 CDC. Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease After Universal Screening Recommendations - United States, 2003-2005. MMWR Wkly Rep 2007, 56(28); 701-705.
40 CDC. Whitney CG, Plikaytis BD, et al. Prevention practices for perinatal group B streptococcal disease: a multi-state surveillance analysis. Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease Study Group. Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Jan;89(1):28-32.
41 CDC. Adoption of Hospital Policies for Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease - United States, 1997. MMWR Wkly Rep 1998, 47(32); 665-670.
42 CDC. Hospital-Based Policies for Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease - United States, 1999. MMWR Wkly Rep 2000, 49(41); 936-940.
43 CDC. Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: Revised Guidelines from CDC, 2002. MMWR Recommendations and Reports: 2002; 51 (RR-11) (August): 1–22.
44 Zangwill KM, Schuchat A, Wenger JD. Group B streptococcal disease in the United States, 1990: report from a multistate active surveillance system. MMWR Surveillance Summaries: 1992, 41(6): 25-32.
45 Baker CJ. Group B Streptococcal Infections in Neonates. Pediatrics in Review 1979; 1:5-15; doi:10.1542/pir.1-1-5.
46 McCracken GH, Jr. Group B streptococci: the new challenge in neonatal infections. J Pediatr 1973;82:703-6.
47 Anthony BF, Okada DM. The emergence of group B streptococci in infections of the newborn infant. Ann Rev Med. 1977;28:355-69.
48 Schuchat A, Oxtoby M, et al. Population-based risk factors for neonatal group B streptococcal disease: results of a cohort study in metropolitan Atlanta. J Infect Dis. 1990 Sep;162(3):672-7.
49 Van Dyke MK, Phares CR, Lynfield R, et al. Evaluation of universal antenatal screening for group B Streptococcus. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 2626-36.
50 Yow MD, Leeds LJ, et al. The natural history of group B streptococcal colonization in the pregnant woman and her offspring. I. Colonization studies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980 May 1;137(1):34-8.
51 Gibbs RS, McDuffie RS Jr, McNabb F, et al. Neonatal group B streptococcal sepsis during 2 years of a universal screening program. Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Oct;84(4):496-500.
52 Regan JA, Klebanoff MA, Nugent RP. The epidemiology of group B streptococcal colonization in pregnancy. Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group. Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Apr;77(4):604-10.
53 Dillon HC Jr, Khare S, Gray BM. Group B streptococcal carriage and disease: a 6-year prospective study. J Pediatric. 1987 Jan;110(1):31-6.
54 Boyer KM, Gadzala CA, et al. Selective intrapartum chemoprophylaxis of neonatal group B streptococcal early-onset disease. II. Predictive value of prenatal cultures. J Infect Dis. 1983 Nov;148(5):802-9.
55 Campbell JR, Hillier SL, et al. Group B streptococcal colonization and serotype-specific immunity in pregnant women at delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Oct;96(4):498-503.
56 Anthony BF, Odada DM, Hobel CJ. Epidemiology of group B Streptococcus: longitudinal observations during pregnancy. J Infect Dis. 1978 May;137(5):524-30.
57 Davies HD, Miller MA, et al. Multicenter study of a rapid molecular-based assay for the diagnosis of group B Streptococcus colonization in pregnant women. Colin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct 15;39(8):1129-35. Epub 2004 Sep 14.
58 Yudin, MH, Shah V, Ohlsson A, Farine D. Are we using the optimal strategy for GBS management in pregnancy? J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2006 Jun;28(6):499-503.
59 Factor SH, Whitney CG, Zywicki SS, Schuchat A. Effects of hospital policies based on 1996 group B streptococcal disease consensus guidelines. The Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Mar;95(3):377-82.
60 CDC. Laboratory Practices for Prenatal Group B Streptococcal Screening and Reporting - Connecticut, Georgia, and Minnesota, 1997-1998. MMWR Wkly Rep: 1999; 48(20): 426-428.
61 CDC. Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: A Public Health Perspective. MMWR Recommendations and Reports: 1996; 45 (RR-7) (May): 1–24.
62 Philipson EH, Palermino DA, Robinson A. Enhanced antenatal detection of group B streptococcus colonization. Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Mar;85(3):437-9.
63 CDC. Trends in Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease - United States, 2000-2006. MMWR Wkly Rep: 2009; 58(05): 109-112.
64 CDC. Diminishing Racial Disparities in Early-Onset Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease - United States, 2000-2003. MMWR Wkly Rep: 2004; 53(25): 502-505.
65 Stapleton RD, Kahn JM, et al. Risk factors for group B streptococcal genitourinary tract colonization in pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Dec;106(6):1246-52.
66 Newton ER, Butler MC, Shain RN. Sexual behavior and vaginal colonization by group B streptococcus among minority women. Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Oct;88(4 Pt 1):577-82.
67 Bauserman MS, Laughon MM, et al. Group B Streptococcus and Escherichia coli Infections in the Intensive Care Nursery in the Era of Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis. Pediatric Infect Dis J. 2013 Mar; 32(3): 208-212.
68 Glasgow TS, Young PC, et al. Association of intrapartum antibiotic exposure and late-onset serious bacterial infections in infants. Pediatrics. 2005 Sep;116(3):696-702.
69 Group B Strep Support. Frequently Asked Questions. http://gbss.org.uk/what-is-gbs/faqs/#26
70 ACOG, personal communication, December 17, 2014.
71 National Vital Statistics Reports. Births: Final Data for 2012. Volume 62, Number 9. December 30, 2013.
72 CDC. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Reports. http://www.cdc.gov/abcs/reports-findings/surv-reports.html
73 NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Statements. Cesearean Delivery on Maternal Request. Volume 23, Number 1. March 27-29, 2006.
74 ACOG. Cesarean Delivery on Maternal Request. Committee Opinion, Number 559, April 2013.
75 Menacker F, Declercq E, Macdorman MF. Cesarean Delivery: Background, Trends, and Epidemiology. Semin Perinatol. 2006 Oct;30(5):235-41.
76 Kahn EB, Berg CJ, Callaghan WM. Cesarean delivery among women with low-risk pregnancies: a comparison of birth certificates and hospital discharge data. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Jan;113(1):33-40. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318190bb33.
77 Gregory KD, Korst LM, et al. Using Administrative Data to Identify Indications for Elective Primary Cesarean Delivery. Health Serv Res. 2002 Oct; 37(5): 1387–1401.
78 CDC. 2012 Natility Public Use File. Table 14: ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/Health_Statistics/NCHS/Dataset_Documentation/DVS/natality/UserGuide2012.pdf
79 Apgar BS, Greenberg G, Yen G. Prevention of group B streptococcal disease in the newborn. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Mar 1;71(5):903-10.
80 Puopolo KM, Madoff LC, Eichenwald EC. Early-onset group B streptococcal disease in the era of maternal screening. Pediatrics. 2005 May;115(5):1240-6.
81 Goins WP, Talbot TR, et al. Adherence to Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Prevention Guidelines. Obstet Gynecol 2010 Jun; 115(6): 1217-1224.
82 Edwards RK, Clark P, Duff P. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis 2: positive predictive value of antenatal group B streptococci cultures and antibiotic susceptibility of clinical isolates. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Sep;100(3):540-4.
83 Towers CV, Rumney PJ, et al. The accuracy of late third-trimester antenatal screening for group B streptococcus in predicting colonization at delivery. Am J Perinatol. 2010 Nov;27(10):785-90. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1254237. Epub 2010 May 10.
84 Asrat T, Rumney P, et al. The accuracy of late third trimester antenatal screening for group B streptococcus in predicting GBS colonization at delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Dec;195(6):S40.
85 Valkenburg-van den Berg AW, Houtman-Roelofsen RL, et al. Timing of group B streptococcus screening in pregnancy: a systematic review. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2010;69(3):174-83. doi: 10.1159/000265942. Epub 2009 Dec 17.
86 Itakura A, Kurauchi O, et al. Variability of peripartum vaginal group B streptococcal colonization. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 19-22.
87 CDC. Early-Onset Group B Streptococcal Disease - United States, 1998-1999. MMWR Wkly Rep: 2000; 49(35): 793-6.
88 CDC, personal communication, December 19, 2014.
89 Georgia Department of Public Health. 2008 Georgia Data Summary: Group B Streptococcus. http://dph.georgia.gov/sites/dph.georgia.gov/files/related_files/site_page/ADES_2008_GBS_Data_Summary_KA_SP_Edits.pdf
90 Barcaite E, Bartusevicius A, et al. Prevalence of maternal group B streptococcal colonisation in European countries. Act Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(3):260-71. doi: 10.1080/00016340801908759.
91 Edmond KM, Kortsalioudaki C, et al. Group B streptococcal disease in infants aged younger than 3 months: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2012 Feb 11;379(9815):547-56. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61651-6. Epub 2012 Jan 4.
92 Melin P. Neonatal group B streptococcal disease: from pathogenesis to preventive strategies. Clin Microbial Infect. 2011 Sep;17(9):1294-303. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03576.x. Epub 2011 Jun 14.
93 Davies HD, Adair CE, et al. Physicians' prevention practices and incidence of neonatal group B streptococcal disease in 2 Canadian regions. CMAJ. 2001 Feb 20; 164(4): 479–485.
94 SOGC. The Prevention of Early-Onset Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease. Clinical Practice Guideline No 298, October 2013.
95 Andreu A, Sanfeliu I, et al. [Decreasing incidence of perinatal group B streptococcal disease (Barcelona 1994-2002). Relation with hospital prevention policies]. Inform Infecc Microbial Clin. 2003 Apr;21(4):174-9.
96 Albouy-Llaty M, Nadeau C, et al. Improving perinatal Group B streptococcus screening with process indicators. J Eval Clin Pract. 2012 Aug;18(4):727-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2753.2011.01658.x. Epub 2011 Mar 18.
97 Isaacs D, Royle JA. Intrapartum antibiotics and early onset neonatal sepsis caused by group B Streptococcus and by other organisms in Australia. Australasian Study Group for Neonatal Infections. Pediatric Infect Dis J. 1999 Jun;18(6):524-8.
98 Daley AJ, Isaacs D, et al. Ten-year study on the effect of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on early onset group B streptococcal and Escherichia coli neonatal sepsis in Australasia. Pediatric Infect Dis J. 2004 Jul;23(7):630-4.
99 May M, Daley AJ, Donath S, Isaacs D. Early onset neonatal meningitis in Australia and New Zealand, 1992–2002. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2005;90:F324–F327. doi: 10.1136/adc.2004.066134.
100 Trijbels-Smeulders MA, Kollée LA, et al. Neonatal group B streptococcal infection: incidence and strategies for prevention in Europe. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 Feb;23(2):172-3.
101 López Sastre JB, Fernández Colomer B, et al. Trends in the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis of vertical transmission in the era of group B streptococcal prevention. Act Paediatr. 2005 Apr;94(4):451-7.
102 Demianczuk NN, Halperin SA, McMillan DD. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal infection: Management strategies. Can J Infect Dis. 1997 Mar-Apr; 8(2): 68–70.
103 Lyytiäinen O, Nuorti JP, et al. Invasive Group B Streptococcal Infections in Finland: A Population-based Study. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 Apr; 9(4): 470–473.
104 Faxelius G, Bremme K, et al. Neonatal septicemia due to group B streptococci--perinatal risk factors and outcome of subsequent pregnancies. J Perinat Med. 1988;16(5-6):423-30.
105 Voluménie JL, Fernandez H, et al. Neonatal group B streptococcal infection. Results of 33 months of universal maternal screening and antibioprophylaxis. Euro J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001 Jan;94(1):79-85.
106 Angstetra D, Ferguson J, Giles WB. Institution of universal screening for Group B streptococcus (GBS) from a risk management protocol results in reduction of early-onset GBS disease in a tertiary obstetric unit. Just N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 Oct;47(5):378-82.
107 Law MR, Palomaki G, et al. The prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal disease: a report by a working group of the Medical Screening Society. J Med Screen 2005;12:60–68
108 Heath PT, Balfour G, et al. Group B streptococcal disease in UK and Irish infants younger than 90 days. Lancet. 2004 Jan 24;363(9405):292-4.
109 Group B Strep Support. GBSS Report, June 2013. http://www.gbss.org.uk/filepool/GBSSReport_2013.pdf
110 HPA. Pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemias in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: 2003. Health protection Report [serial online] 2004 [16 April, 2004]; 14(16): infection report.
111 PHE. Voluntary surveillance of pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: 2013. Health protection Report [serial online] 2014 [21 November 2014]; 8(44): infection report.
112 PHE. The National Archives. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20140714084352/http:/www.hpa.org.uk/webw/HPAweb&HPAwebStandard/HPAweb_C/1214892073558
113 Vesikari T, Janas M, et al. Neonatal septicaemia. Arch Dis Child 1985;60:542-546 doi:10.1136/adc.60.6.542
114 Vesikari T, Isolauri E, et al. Neonatal septicaemia in Finland 1981-85. Predominance of group B streptococcal infections with very early onset. Act Paediatr Scand. 1989 Jan;78(1):44-50.
115 Kalliola S, Vuopio-Varkila J, Takala AK, Eskola J. Neonatal group B streptococcal disease in Finland: a ten-year nationwide study. Pediatric Infect Dis J. 1999 Sep;18(9):806-10.
116 Hajdu A, Blystad H, et al. Unexpected increase in case fatality of invasive group B streptococcal infections in infants in Norway, January-July 2006. Euro Surveill. 2006;11(30):pii=3010. Available online: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=3010
117 Aavitsland P, Høiby EA, Lystad A. Systemic group B streptococcal disease in neonates and young infants in Norway 1985-94. Act Paediatr. 1996 Jan;85(1):104-5.
118 Hasseltvedt V, Høiby EA. Systemic streptococcal group B disease in Norway - an increasing health problem. Euro Surveill. 2001;5(40):pii=2086.
119 Bergseng H, Rygg M, Bevanger L, Bergh K. Invasive group B streptococcus (GBS) disease in Norway 1996-2006. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008 Dec;27(12):1193-9. doi: 10.1007/s10096-008-0565-8. Epub 2008 Jun 17.
120 Bergseng H, Asset JE, et al. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of invasive group B streptococcus strains from infants in Norway 2006-2007. Colin Microbial Infect. 2009 Dec;15(12):1182-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02789.x. Epub 2009 May 16.
121 Trijbels-Smeulders M, de Jonge GA, et al. Epidemiology of neonatal group B streptococcal disease in the Netherlands before and after introduction of guidelines for prevention. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007 Jul; 92(4): F271–F276.
122 Bekker V, Bijlsma MW, et al. Incidence of invasive group B streptococcal disease and pathogen genotype distribution in newborn babies in the Netherlands over 25 years: a nationwide surveillance study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Nov;14(11):1083-9. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70919-3. Epub 2014 Oct 19.
123 Marchaim D, Hallak M, et al. Risk factors for carriage of group B streptococcus in southern Israel. Sir Med Assoc J. 2003 Sep;5(9):646-8.
124 Ginsberg GM, Eidelman AI, et cal. Should Israel screen all mothers-to-be to prevent early-onset of neonatal group B streptococcal disease? A cost-utility analysis. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research 2013, 2:6.
125 Kuruvilla KA, Thomas N, Jesudason MV, Jana AK. Neonatal Group B Streptococcal bacteraemia in India: ten years' experience. Acta Paediatr. 1999 Sep;88(9):1031-2.
126 Tsolia M, Psoma M, et al. Group B streptococcus colonization of Greek pregnant women and neonates: prevalence, risk factors and serotypes. Colin Microbial Infect. 2003 Aug;9(8):832-8.
127 Mavenyengwa RT, Afset JE, et al. Group B Streptococcus colonization during pregnancy and maternal-fetal transmission in Zimbabwe. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89(2):250-5. doi: 10.3109/00016340903398029.
128 Bisharat N, Jones N, et al. Population structure of group B streptococcus from a low-incidence region for invasive neonatal disease. Microbiology. 2005 Jun;151(Pt 6):1875-81.
129 Marchaim D, Hallak M, et al. Risk factors for carriage of group B streptococcus in southern Israel. Sir Med Assoc J. 2003 Sep;5(9):646-8.
130 Dunn AB, Blomquist J, Khouzami V. Anaphylaxis in labor secondary to prophylaxis against group B Streptococcus. A case report. J Reprod Med. 1999 Apr;44(4):381-4.
131 Chaudhuri K, Gonzales J, et al. Anaphylactic shock in pregnancy: a case study and review of the literature. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2008 Oct;17(4):350-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2008.05.002.
132 Berthier A, Sentilhes L, et al. [Antibiotics at term. Questions about five severe allergic accidents]. General Obstet Fertil. 2007 May;35(5):464-72. Epub 2007 Apr 16.
133 Jao MS, Cheng PJ, Shaw SW, Soong YK. Anaphylaxis to cefazolin during labor secondary to prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus: a case report. J Reprod Med.
134 Sheikh J. Intrapartum anaphylaxis to penicillin in a woman with rheumatoid arthritis who had no prior penicillin allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007 Sep;99(3):287-9.
135 CDC. Group B Strep - Prevention in Newborns. http://www.cdc.gov/groupbstrep/about/prevention.html
136 AAP. Revised guidelines for prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) infection. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases and Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Pediatrics. 1997 Mar;99(3):489-96.
137 Weiss ME, Atkinson NF. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to penicillin and related antibiotics. Clin Allergy. 1988 Nov;18(6):515-40.
138 Dinsmoor MJ, Viloria R, Lief L, Elder S. Use of intrapartum antibiotics and the incidence of postnatal maternal and neonatal yeast infections. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jul;106(1):19-22.
139 UBC Midwifery. Group B Streptococcus. http://www.gamidwife.com/pdf/GBS%20handout%202009.pdf
140 Koenig JM, Keenan WJ. Group B Streptococcus and Early-Onset Sepsis in the Era of Maternal Prophylaxis. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 Jun; 56(3): 689–Contents.
141 Towers CV, Carr MH, Padilla G, Asrat T. Potential consequences of widespread antepartal use of ampicillin. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Oct;179(4):879-83.
142 Alarcón A, Peña P, et al. Neonatal early onset Escherichia coli sepsis: trends in incidence and antimicrobial resistance in the era of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 Apr;23(4):295-9.
143 Cordero L, Rau R, Taylor D, Ayers LW. Enteric gram-negative bacilli bloodstream infections: 17 years' experience in a neonatal intensive care unit. Am J Infect Control. 2004 Jun;32(4):189-95.
144 Joseph TA, Pyati SP, Jacobs N. Neonatal early-onset Escherichia coli disease. The effect of intrapartum ampicillin. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998 Jan;152(1):35-40.
145 Esker KL, Donohue PK, et al. The impact of group B streptococcus prophylaxis on late-onset neonatal infections. J Perinatol. 2013 Mar;33(3):206-11. doi: 10.1038/jp.2012.76. Epub 2012 Jun 14.
146 Bizzarro MJ, Dembry LM, Baltimore RS, Gallagher PG. Changing patterns in neonatal Escherichia coli sepsis and ampicillin resistance in the era of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Pediatrics. 2008 Apr;121(4):689-96. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2171.
147 Chu YW, Tse C, et al. Invasive group B Streptococcus isolates showing reduced susceptibility to penicillin in Hong Kong. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007 Dec;60(6):1407-9. Epub 2007 Oct 24.
148 Kimura K, Suzuki S, et al. First Molecular Characterization of Group B Streptococci with Reduced Penicillin Susceptibility. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2008 August; 52(8): 2890-2897.
149 Levine EM, Ghai V, Barton JJ, Strom CM. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis increases the incidence of gram-negative neonatal sepsis. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 7(4): 210–213.
150 Stoll BJ, Hansen N. Infections in VLBW infants: studies from the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Semi Perinatol. 2003 Aug;27(4):293-301.
151 Stoll BJ, Hansen N, et al. Changes in pathogens causing early-onset sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):240-7.
152 Stoll BJ, Hansen NI, et al. Very low birth weight preterm infants with early onset neonatal sepsis: the predominance of gram-negative infections continues in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network, 2002-2003. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Jul;24(7):635-9.
153 Schrag SJ, Hadler JL, et al. Risk factors for invasive, early-onset Escherichia coli infections in the era of widespread intrapartum antibiotic use. Pediatrics. 2006 Aug;118(2):570-6.
154 CDC. Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance. http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/about.html
155 Tanaka S, Kobayashi T, et al. Influence of antibiotic exposure in the early postnatal period on the development of intestinal microbiota. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009 Jun;56(1):80-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2009.00553.x. Epub 2009 Apr 6.
156 eMedExpert. http://www.emedexpert.com/compare/penicillins.shtml
157 Jaufréguy F, Carton M, et al. Effects of intrapartum penicillin prophylaxis on intestinal bacterial colonization in infants. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Nov;42(11):5184-8.
158 Fouhy F, Guinean CM, et al. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals the Incomplete, Short-Term Recovery of Infant Gut Microbiota following Parenteral Antibiotic Treatment with Ampicillin and Gentamicin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Nov; 56(11): 5811–5820.
159 Fouhy F, Ross RP, et al. Composition of the early intestinal microbiota: Knowledge, knowledge gaps and the use of high-throughput sequencing to address these gaps. Gut Microbes, 3(3), 203–220. doi:10.4161/gmic.20169
160 Grönlund MM, Lehtonen OP, Eerola E, Kero P. Fecal microflora in healthy infants born by different methods of delivery: permanent changes in intestinal flora after cesarean delivery. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1999 Jan;28(1):19-25.
161 Dominguez-Bello MG, Costello EK, et al. Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jun 29;107(26):11971-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1002601107. Epub 2010 Jun 21.
162 Sloan M. Unintended Consequences: Cesarean Section, The Gut Microbiota, and Child Health. http://www.scienceandsensibility.org/unintended-consequences-cesarean-section-the-gut-microbiota-and-child-health/
163 Golden HA, Bettiol H, et al. Cesarean delivery is associated with an increased risk of obesity in adulthood in a Brazilian birth cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun;93(6):1344-7. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.010033. Epub 2011 Apr 20.
164 Salminen S, Gibson GR, McCartney AL, Isolauri E. Influence of mode of delivery on gut microbiota composition in seven year old children. Gut 2004;53:1388-1389 doi:10.1136/gut.2004.041640
165 McKeever TM, Lewis SA, Smith C, Hubbard R. The importance of prenatal exposures on the development of allergic disease: a birth cohort study using the West Midlands General Practice Database. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Sep 15;166(6):827-32.
166 Lin FY, Trundle JF. Hypothesis: Neonatal respiratory distress may be related to asymptomatic colonization with group B streptococci. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Oct;25(10):884-8.
167 NIH. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01479478?term=probiotics+AND+group+b+strep&rank=1
168 Cheyney M, Bovbjerg M, et al. Development and Validation of a National Data Registry for Midwife-Led Births: The Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project 2.0 Dataset. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2014 Feb;59(1):8-16.
169 MANA. MANA Stats. http://mana.org/research/mana-stats
170 Saraswathi Vedam, personal correspondence, July 18, 2014.
171 MANA. Facilitating High-Quality Research. http://mana.org/research/facilitating-high-quality-research